Commercial Litigation and Arbitration

Dismissal Sanction — Third Circuit’s Six-Factor Test That Must Be Applied before Dismissing a Case Is Inapplicable after Trial and Verdict — But Dismissal Still Sanction of Last Resort

Knoll v. City of Allentown, 2013 U.S. App. LEXIS 3647 (3d Cir. Feb. 21, 2013):

In Poulis v. State Farm Fire & Casualty Co., 747 F.2d 863 (3d Cir. 1984), we held that a district court must consider six factors before it may dismiss a case as a sanction before trial on the merits. This appeal requires us to decide whether Poulis applies in the post-trial context. We hold it does not. ***


Both the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and a court's inherent authority to control its docket empower a district court to dismiss a case as a sanction for failure to follow procedural rules or court orders. See, e.g., Fed. R. Civ. P. 37(b)(2)(A)(v); Fed. R. Civ. P. 41(b); Link v. Wabash R.R. Co., 370 U.S. 626, 629-30 (1962). Nevertheless, because we recognized that "dismissals with prejudice . . . are drastic sanctions," Poulis, 747 F.2d at 867, in Poulis we enumerated six factors a district court must consider before it dismisses a case pursuant to such authority. See id. at 868.

Footnote 2. The factors are:

(1) the extent of the party's personal responsibility; (2) the prejudice to the adversary caused by the failure to meet scheduling orders and respond to discovery; (3) a history of dilatoriness; (4) whether the conduct of the party or the attorney was willful or in bad faith; (5) the effectiveness of sanctions other than dismissal, which entails an analysis of alternative sanctions; and (6) the meritoriousness of the claim or defense.

Poulis, 747 F.2d at 868 (emphasis deleted).

We have required consideration of the Poulis factors when a district court dismisses a case pursuant to Rule 37(b) for failure to respond to discovery, e.g., United States v. $8,221,877.16 in U.S. Currency, 330 F.3d 141, 145, 161-62 (3d Cir. 2003); Hicks v. Feeney, 850 F.2d 152, 155-56 (3d Cir. 1988), when a district court dismisses a case pursuant to Rule 41(b) for failure to prosecute, e.g., Dunbar v. Triangle Lumber & Supply Co., 816 F.2d 126, 128-29 (3d Cir. 1987), and when a district court enters a default judgment pursuant to Rule 55(b) as a sanction for failure to plead or otherwise defend, e.g., Comdyne I, Inc. v. Corbin, 908 F.2d 1142, 1148 (3d Cir. 1990). In addition, we have required a Poulis analysis when a district court imposes sanctions that are tantamount to default judgment because they inevitably lead to liability for one party. E.g., Ali v. Sims, 788 F.2d 954, 957 (3d Cir. 1986).

Our application of Poulis in those contexts comports with the underlying concern Poulis sought to address, namely that dismissal as a sanction before adjudication of the merits deprives a party of her day in court. This concern resonates throughout our precedents. See, e.g., Adams v. Trs. of N.J. Brewery Emps. Pension Trust Fund, 29 F.3d 863, 870 (3d Cir. 1994); Livera v. First Nat'l State Bank of N.J., 879 F.2d 1186, 1194 (3d Cir. 1989); Scarborough v. Eubanks, 747 F.2d 871, 875 (3d Cir. 1984); cf. Fleisher v. Standard Ins. Co., 679 F.3d 116, 131 (3d Cir. 2012) (Garth, J., dissenting) (citing the Poulis test as an example of the "length to which we have gone in preserving cases for a merits determination”).

Likewise, the fact that we extended Poulis beyond cases in which there was an explicit order of dismissal to those cases in which alternative sanctions were tantamount to dismissal highlights our primary concern: to preserve the ability of the parties to try their cases on the merits. Thus, when sanctions effectively dictate the result, Poulis applies. The converse is equally true; when sanctions do not preclude all claims or defenses such that a party still has her day in court, Poulis does not apply. Compare Ali, 788 F.2d at 957-58 (requiring consideration of the Poulis factors because the sanction of deeming certain material allegations of plaintiff's complaint admitted led inevitably to liability for the defendant and thus was tantamount to default judgment), with Hagans v. Henry Weber Aircraft Distribs., Inc., 852 F.2d 60, 66 (3d Cir. 1988) (not requiring consideration of Poulis because, despite stiff sanctions, "plaintiffs in this case still may establish liability on at least some, if not all, of their theories . . . . Unlike the defendants in Ali, plaintiffs here will still have their day in court.”).

In this appeal, Knoll implicitly urges us to extend Poulis to the post-trial context. We decline to do so. The concern animating Poulis--that dismissal will deprive a party of her day in court and preclude review of potentially meritorious claims--does not apply in the post-trial context. After all, the parties have already received an adjudication on the merits. Furthermore, although we acknowledge that, for instance, a dismissal of a motion for a new trial due to noncompliance with a procedural rule may deprive a party of an adjudication of that particular motion before the district court, it does not deprive that party of further review of the claims of error presented in such a motion. Those claims, so long as they have been properly raised and preserved, would be ripe for review on appeal to our Court. See Hewlett v. Davis, 844 F.2d 109, 115 n.3 (3d Cir. 1988).

Moreover, in the post-trial context, other elements of sound judicial administration assume greater significance: the inherent authority of courts "to manage their own affairs so as to achieve the orderly and expeditious disposition of cases," Link, 370 U.S. at 630-31, and the existence of a final judgment that may be appealed, see Fed. R. App. P. 4(a)(4) (discussing the effect of a post-trial motion on a notice of appeal).

Finally, although we are mindful that Poulis operates in some cases to protect innocent parties from bearing the consequences of their attorneys' mistakes, see Poulis, 747 F.2d at 868 (factors one and four), we also acknowledge that parties cannot always "avoid the consequences of the acts or omissions of this freely selected agent," Link, 370 U.S. at 633-34. Indeed, the gravity of an attorney's errors in the post-trial context is mitigated because the parties have already received a merits determination on their claims and defenses. Furthermore, we are confident that our Court will ensure that claims of error made in post-trial motions will receive appropriate review on appeal even when the post-trial motion itself is dismissed without consideration of the Poulis factors.

For these reasons, we hold that a district court need not engage in a Poulis analysis when it dismisses a post-trial motion for noncompliance with procedural rules or court orders.


Although we hold that an analysis of the Poulis factors is not necessary in the post-trial context, we continue to adhere to the view that "[d]ismissal must be a sanction of last, not first, resort." Poulis, 747 F.2d at 869. We review dismissal of a post-trial motion as a sanction for abuse of discretion. See Hewlett, 844 F.2d at 114.

In this case, we cannot say that the District Court abused its discretion in dismissing Knoll's motion for a new trial and denying her subsequent motion for reconsideration. First, the dismissal sanction was specifically authorized by Local Rule 7.1(e), the validity of which Knoll does not challenge. We have previously recognized that "local rules play 'a vital role in the district courts' efforts to manage themselves and their dockets.'" Smith, 845 F.2d at 1184 (quoting Eash v. Riggins Trucking, Inc., 757 F.2d 557, 570 (3d Cir. 1985)). They "facilitate the implementation of court policy, both by setting norms and putting the local bar on notice of their existence," and "serve to impose uniformity on practice within a district." Id.

Second, Knoll had ample time to comply with Local Rule 7.1(e).

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