Only U.S. Citizenship of Dual Citizen Counts for Diversity — No General Duty under Rule 11 to Withdraw (Just Not to Reassert), but Failure to Withdraw within Safe Harbor Exposes Target to Costs of Motion

Fuerst v. Fuerst, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 141873 (E.D.N.Y. Dec. 9, 2011):

Wolfgang Fuerst ("Wolfgang" or "the Plaintiff") commenced this action against his now former wife Hannelore Fuerst ("Hannelore" or "the Defendant") seeking economic and emotional damages based on her alleged misconduct during their divorce proceeding. The Defendant counterclaimed against Wolfgang for economic and emotional damages and filed a motion for sanctions pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure ("Fed. R. Civ. P.) 11 based on his commencement and continued prosecution of the instant action. After a judgment of divorce was entered, the Plaintiff withdrew his complaint in this action.***

Although Wolfgang is a citizen of both Germany and the United States, it is the general consensus among the courts — including the Second Circuit — that, where a party has dual citizenship, [i]n matters of diversity jurisdiction American citizenship will determine diversity". Action S.A. v. Marc Rich & Co., Inc., 951 F.2d 504, 508 (2d Cir. 1991); see also Frett-Smith v. Vanterpool, 511 F.3d 396, 400 (3d Cir. 2008); Coury v. Prot, 85 F.3d 244, 247 (5th Cir. 1996); Mutuelles Unies v. Kroll & Linstrom, 957 F.2d 707, 711 (9th Cir. 1992); Sadat v. Mertes, 615 F.2d 1176, 1187 (7th Cir. 1980). The rationale behind this rule is that "the dual citizen should not be allowed to invoke alienage jurisdiction because this would give him an advantage not enjoyed by native-born American citizens". Coury, 85 F.3d at 250. Furthermore, in the situation where a United States citizen is domiciled abroad, he is considered neither a citizen of any state within the United States, nor a citizen or subject of a foreign state. See Herrick Co., Inc. v. SCS Commc'ns, Inc., 251 F.3d 315, 322 (2d Cir. 2001). Thus, where a United States citizen is domiciled abroad at the time an action is commenced, § 1332(a) does not provide the Court with jurisdiction over the suit. See id. As a result, "diversity jurisdiction may be properly invoked only when a dual citizen's domicile, and thus his citizenship, is in a state diverse from that of adverse parties." Coury, 85 F.3d at 250. ***

"It is well established that 'Rule 11 does not impose a continuing obligation on the presenter to update, correct or withdraw any pleading, written motion or other paper which, when presented, satisfies the requirements of the Rule.'" Carlton Group, Ltd. v. Tobin, No. 02-CV-5065, 2003 WL 21782650, at *6 (S.D.N.Y. July 31, 2003) (quoting Gregory P. Joseph, Sanctions: The Federal Law of Litigation Abuse 125 (3d ed. 2000)); see also Stiefvater Real Estate, Inc. v. Hinsdale, 812 F.2d 805, 809 (2d Cir. 1987) ("[R]ule 11 deals exclusively with 'the certification flowing from the signature to a pleading, motion, or other paper in a law suit', and imposes no continuing duty on the parties or their attorneys.") (quoting Oliveri v. Thompson, 803 F.2d 1265, 1274 (2d Cir. 1986)). Accordingly, there is "no obligation to update a pleading, motion or other paper based on new information provided that the document met the requirements of Rule 11 when signed." Curley v. Brignoli Curley & Roberts, Assocs., 128 F.R.D. 613, 616 (S.D.N.Y.1989). Thus, because the Plaintiff filed the complaint before the Settlement was signed, the Plaintiff did not violate Rule 11 by not immediately withdrawing the complaint.

Nevertheless, "Rule 11 sanctions are appropriate where an attorney or party declines to withdraw a claim 'upon an express request by his or her adversary after learning that [the claim] was groundless.'" Carlton Group, 2003 WL 21782650, at *7 (quoting Calloway v. Marvel Entm't Group, 854 F.2d 1452, 1472 (2d Cir. 1988), rev'd. in part on other grounds, 493 U.S. 120, 110 S. Ct. 456, 107 L. Ed. 2d 438 (1989)); see also O'Malley v. New York City Transit Auth., 896 F.2d 704, 709 (2d Cir. 1990) ("[C]ontinuing to press an obviously meritless lawsuit does tend to indicate bad faith and further supports the imposition of a rule 11 sanction.").

The Settlement that serves as the basis for this motion was signed on September 1, 2010. On September 2, 2010, the Defendant's attorney sent a letter to the Plaintiff's attorney asking if the Plaintiff intended to withdraw the complaint in light of the settlement. This inquiry does not constitute a demand. However, on December 28, 2010, in accordance with the safe harbor provision of Rule 11(c)(2), the Defendant served a copy of the sanctions motion on the Plaintiff's attorney. Under this rule, the Plaintiff had 21 days to withdraw his complaint without consequences. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 11(c)(2). After the Plaintiff failed to withdraw the complaint, on January 24, 2011, the Defendant filed the instant motion for sanctions. ***

Here, the sanctionable conduct that the Court seeks to deter is the maintenance and continuation of a lawsuit rendered meritless by events subsequent to its commencement, despite a demand of withdrawal. Pursuant to Rule 11(c)(2), if a party fails to withdraw the challenged document within 21 days of being served with a motion for sanctions, "the court may award to the prevailing party the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, incurred for the motion". Fed. R. Civ. P. 11(c). Accordingly, the Court finds that the appropriate sanction is for the Plaintiff's attorney to pay the attorney's fees and costs incurred by the Defendant in bringing and defending its motion for sanctions. The Defendant is directed to submit within 10 days of the date of this order, records reflecting the hours expended by her attorney and the costs incurred in filing and defending the motion for sanctions.

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